Before moving towards the basic concept of working principal of a search engine it is important to know what a search engine is. When your concept about its definition will be clear then you will be able to learn that how a search engine works.
Search Engine is not a single module; it has many parts of their own importance. When we open any of the common or major search engines, we normally see a window with a Search Box; this window is called User interface or Query interface.
Here I list the parts of a search engine.
- Query Interface (User Interface)
- Crawlers, Spiders or Robots of Search Engine
- Data Base of Search Engine
The query interface is what most people are familiar with, and it’s probably what comes to mind when you hear the term “search engine.” The query interface is the page that users see when they navigate to a search engine to enter a search term. As you can see in below figure.
In beginning times, query interface was just like a Box to enter the search term and then a button to activate or perform search process. Today, many search engines on the Web have added much more personalized content in an attempt to capitalize on the real estate available to them. For example, Yahoo! Search Engine.
As we can see in the below figure.
Yahoo! allows users to personalize their pages with a free e-mail account, weather information, news, sports, and many other elements designed to make users want to return to that site to conduct their web searches.
One other option users have for customizing the interfaces of their search engines is a capability like the one Google offers. The Google search engine has a customizable interface to which users can add different gadgets. These gadgets allow users to add features to their customized Google search home that meet their own personal needs or tastes. Google search engine is more powerful search engine it takes you to the right direction and search terms. It is done so due to the optimization of a website considering Google Search Engine in mind. To meet Google requirements of optimization you can learn more in other articles.
Crawlers, Spiders or Robots:
Query interface of a search engine is the only part which is visible to visitors. Other parts of search engine are hidden. What is happening behind is the point to learn here. For example, we type search term and press Enter, What happens behind the search box is an interesting part of search engine.
These little creatures are programs that literally crawl around the Web, cataloging data so that it can be searched. In the most basic sense all three programs crawlers, spiders, and robots are basically the same. They all “collect” information about each and every web URL. This information is then cataloged according to the URL on which they’re located and are stored in a database. Then, when a user uses a search engine to locate something on the Web, the references in the database are searched and the search results are returned.
Every Search Engine is contains a place where data about each URL is stored. This place is called database of the search engine. Data is collected by crawlers, spiders or robots at continuous basis. These databases are massive storage areas that contain multiple data points about each URL. The data might be arranged in any number of different ways, and will be ranked according to a method of ranking and retrieval that is usually proprietary to the company that owns the search engine.